Ajdukiewicz's keywords


Meaning specifications and meaning rules

"[...] it was claimed [in the paper "Language and meaning" (1934)] that the specification of the vocabulary and syntax is not sufficient to determine a language unequivocally, but that there is needed in addition the meaning-specification (coordination) of the language, i.e. the way in which meaning is coordinated in this language with its words and expressions. Then it was established that one can discover whether a person attaches to a certain sentence of a language the meaning coordinated with it in this language by putting the person into a situation (chosen with the sentence in mind) and noting whether he si prepared to accept the sentence il this situation [...]. Only that person uses the sentences of a language in the maening coordinated with them by the meaning-specification of S who is invariably prepared to accept a sentence of type T when h is in situation L.
We referred to such rules as rules of meaning (or meaning-rules) of the language. We distinguished three kinds of meaning-rules, to wit: (1) axiomatic rules of meaning (which specify the sentences whose rejection - irrespective of the situation of the rejector - indicates a violation of the meaning-specification of the language); (2) deductive rules of meaning (which specify of sentences of such a sort that a person, ig he accepts the first, must be prepared to accept the second on pain of violating the meaning-specification of the language); (3) empirical rules of meaning (which coordinate with certain experimental data certain sentences that - in view of the experiential data - one must be prepared to accept if he would avoid violating the meaning-specification of the languae)"
("The World-Picture and the Conceptual Apparatus" (1934), in K. Ajdukiewicz, The Scientific World-Perspective and other Essays (1931-1963), ed. by J. Giedymin, Reidel, Dordrecht 1978, p. 68).

"We call two expressions 'immediately (directly) meaning related' if either (a) both occur simultaneously in one and the same sentence dictated by an axiomatic meaning rule; or (b) both occur simultaneously in one and the same sentence-apis specified by a deductive meaning-rule; or (c) both occur simultaneously in one and the same sentence coordinated with an experiential datum by an ampirical meaning-rule. A language is called connected in case its vocabulary of expressions is not decomposable into two non-empty classes suc that no expressions of one classe is immediately meaning-related to any expressions if the other classe"


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