Lukasiewicz's keywords

 

The Reform of Philosophy

[The application of logical method]

 "Future philosophy must start its own construction from the very beginning, from its foundations. And to begin from the foundations means to make first a review of those problems which can be formulated comprehensibly and to reject all others. Mathematical logic can be useful even in that preliminary work, because it has fixed the meaning of many expressions that belong to philosophy. Next we have to proceed to tentative solutions of those problems, which should be used for that purpose, seems again to be that of mathematical logic, as far as deductive, axiomathic, method. We have to base ourselves on statements, intuitive as far as possible, clear, and certain, and such statements must be adopted as axioms. We have to select such expressions whose sense can be explained in different ways by examples taken as primitive, that is undefined, concepts. We must endeavour that the axioms and primitive concepts should be as few as possible, and they must all be listed precisely. All other concepts must be unconditionally proved by reference to axioms and with the use of the methods of proof adopted in logic. The results obtained in this way must be checked all the time against the data provided by intuition and experience and with the results of other sciences, especially the natural sciences. If necessary, the system must be corrected by the formulation of new axioms and by adopting new primitive concepts. We have always to keep in touch with reality in order not to produce mythological entities such as Platonic ideas and Kant's things in themselves, and in order to come to know the essence and structure of the real world in which we live and act, and which we want somehow to transform into a better one. In that work we have, for the time being, to behave as if nothing had been done in philosophy so far".
("O metode w filozofii" [1928] (Toward a Method in Philosophy), Przeglad Filozoficzny, 31, p. 4; from J. Wolenski, Logic and Philosophy in the Lvov-Warsaw School, Kluwer Acad. Publ., Dordrecht/Boston/London, 1989, pp. 57-8)

 

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