1 - I use the term 'object' (obiectum) in the broadest sense, comprising persons and things, states, events, their properties and the relations obtaining among them in short everything which we can imagine or comprehend at all. The Polish term for 'object,' understood in this way, corresponds to the German Gegenstand. See [Erdmann 1886], 314f.
2 - Aristotle, De Anima, III 8 (432 a 12-14); Ibid. III 7 (431 b 22); also Metaphysica, I 8 (990 a 31-32), II 4 (999 b 2), VI 10 (1036 a 3), VIII 3 (1043 b 29-30), VIII 6 (1045 a 34).
3 - Twardowski refers here to the Polish edition of Descartes' Meditations on first philosophy , VI Meditation. See [Descartes 1970], 109f (ed. note).
4 - [Taine 1885], book I, ch. II, 37f. The quotation has not been checked against the original. Date as given in [Twardowski 1965] is 1885. I have only be able to locate the 1883 edition (ed. note).
5- J. St. Mill, "An examination of Sir W. Hamilton's philosophy", in [Mill 1865], 330; repr. in [Mill 1979], vol. 9.
6 - [Ribot 1897]; [Sigwart 1889], vol. 1, ch. I, ßß 40-44; [Rickert 1888]; [Rickert 1894]; [Taine 1885], book I and book IV, ch. I.
7 - The next section is omitted: it is devoted to a comparison between the meanings and usages of the German word Vorstellung and the Polish word wyobrazenie. Twardowski presents the following terminology: the German word Vorstellungen corresponds to Polish przedstawienia, which are of two kinds: wyobrazenia (in German: anschauliche (konkrete) Vorstellungen and pojeecia (unanschauliche Vorstellungen, Begriffe). Twardowski himself suggests the English word "image" as an equivalent to the Polish wyobrazenie and the German anschauliche Vorstellungen. As this would be misleading for contemporary English readers, the philosophically neutral term "imagery" is used here. (A. L-K).
8 - Twardowski refers here to the German edition of Hume's treatise. See [Hume 1895], 8-18 (ed. note).
9 - For example [Taine 1885] book II, ch. I, p. 56. [...] Jodl speaks in favour of the acceptance of Hume's original terminology in [Jodl 1886], ch. III, § 56, p. 140.
10 - [Schmitz-Dumont 1881], 395. The quotation has not been checked against the original (ed. note).
11 - [Taine 1885], 16f, 23, 75f; [Höfler 1897], § 38.
12 - [Sully 1884], 119. The quotation has not been checked against the original (ed. note).
13 - By 'making a judgement' I mean the psychic act of judging alone (affirming or denying), as distinguished from expressing a judgement by means of a proposition. [...]
14 - [Twardowski 1897], 6.
15 - [Taine 1885], book III, ch. I, § 3.
16 - [Wundt 1896], p. 109: "Gebilde, die entweder ganz oder vorzugsweise aus Empfindungen zusammengesetz sind, bezeichnen wir als Vorstellungen" [Images which are made up entirely or largely of sensations we will refer to as representations (here: imageries ed. note)]; [Scripture 1892], 215: "Eine Vorstellung is eine Kombination von Empfindungen" [A representation (here: imagery ed. note) is a combination of sensations]; [Struve 1896], 122: "Psychologia wykazuje dowodnie, z-e wyobraz-enie przedmiotu, np. czl-owieka, konia, de¸bu, krysztal-u, jest uksztal-towaniem w pewien ustrój jednolity, logiczny wielkiej liczby szczegól-owych wraz-en´ wywol-anych przez ten przedmiot" [Psychology evidently shows that an imagery of an individual object is a synthesis of a series of sensory impressions. Already the simplest imagery of a certain object, for example, of a man, a horse, an oak-tree, a crystal, is a formation of a great number of individual impressions caused by that object into a certain uniform, consistent system].
17 - A legendary founder of the Polish town Cracow (in Polish Kraków) (ed. note).
18 - [Twardowski 1897], 12f.
19 - [Raciborski 1886], vol. 1, 136.
20 - In the original the quotation is in French: "Un groupe d'images analogues à celles, par lesquelles nous représentons nos propres évenements" and "La sensation et les images, qui nous représent toutes les propriétés d'un corps évoquent le groupe d'images, qui nous représent toutes les propriétés d'une âme". See [Taine 1885] book III, ch. I, § 9, p. 214. Also Marty talks about images (Anschauungen, konkrete Vorstellungen) of mental objects; see [Marty 1890], 67. Aristotle's phantasmata can be applied also to one's own mental phenomena. See [Brentano 1867], 102.
21 - [Twardowski 1894], § 12.
22 - A good explanation of this function of imagery is given by Scripture. See [Scripture 1892].
23 - [Höfler 1897], ch. I, § 30.
24 - [Kerry 1885], 435.
25 - [Meinong 1889], 200-215.
26 - Ibid, 202.
27 - [Ribot 1897], 8f.
28 - [Schopenhauer 1813], ch. IV, § 17.
29 - In the sense of "obvious", hence "manifest" (ed. note).
30 - [Ribot 1897], 9.
31 - [Raciborski 1886], vol. 1, 136.
32 - This term has been adopted in psychology by Huxley; see [Ribot 1897],